One of the main specific features of political power is the legitimacy of le. It is a form of support, justify the lawfulness of the use of power and implementation (specific form) of the Board or the state as a whole or its individual structures and institutions.
Etymologically, the word “legitimacy” has its origin from the Latin legalis – legitimacy. However, the legitimacy and legality are not synonyms Mami. As political power is not always based on law and law-tries, but always use some support at least part of the population, the legitimacy of characterizing the support and support for the real power of subjective Tami policy different from legality, demonstrating the legal-Soviet, legally sound type of government, ie recognizing his great-vomochnosti population as a whole. In some political systems, power can be legitimate and illegitimate, for example, during the reign of the metropolitan-ly in the colonial states, in others – a legitimate, but illegal, as, say, after the accomplishment of the revolution, supported by the majority of the population, in the third – and the legal and legitimate, as, for example, after the victory of certain forces in the elections.
In the history of political thought expressed a lot of conflicting views on the very possibility of legitimizing power. So, scientists, standing on the platform and anthropological positions of natural law, used go of what is possible and real legitimacy, as in human society are present some absolute, common to all the values and ideals. This gives citizens an opportunity to support the regime.
At the same time, many scientists believe that it is the absence of such of common to all ideas in a segmented society is the cause of the impossibility of legitimacy. Thus, according to the Austrian scientist G. Kelsen, human knowledge and interests is extremely relative, and therefore all are free and in the design of their lives, and in relation to power. However, proponents of the contractual theories argue that government support is possible as long as there is a shared understanding of citizens with respect to its goals and values. Therefore, “any type of legitimacy presupposes the existence of a minimum social consensus on the values that the majority of society and accept that underlie the functioning of the political regime.”
A different approach in the XVIII century. offered English philosopher Edmund Burke, who shared the theoretical and practical aspects of legitimacy. Legitimacy he analyzed not by itself, and connected it only with a specific regime to specific citizens. According to him, only a positive experience and the habit of the population can lead to the construction of such a model power, where she would meet the interests of the citizens and, therefore, could benefit from their support. And this experience and appropriate conditions should be formed to accumulate evolutionary, preventing conscious design Nome legitimacy.
Currently in political science can be more focused approach to the concept of legitimacy, fixing a much broader range of its sources and forms. So, as a major source of legitimacy, are generally considered three subjects: the population, the government and external non-political structure.
Legitimacy, which means support for power on the part of the general public, is the cherished goal of all political regimes That it primarily provides stability and authorities-STI positive attitude toward the authorities’ policy and its recognition of the legitimacy of the ruling elite are formed on any issues that turn out to yuschimsya the focus of public opinion approval and support of the public authorities are associated with various political and civic traditions, ideologies, delivery mechanisms, the process of auto-riteta shared “highs” and “lows” values defined organization-tion of the state and society. This causes relate to legitimacy as a political and cultural characteristics of power relations.
The population, as noted above, can support the rulers and when they do not run the country in view of this such legitimacy may emerge even in the face of declining efficiency of government. For this reason, in this form of legitimacy is of paramount importance independent of the formal-legal arrangements and the actual location of the unitarity komplimen-citizens to the existing regime.
At the same time, the legitimacy of the form can be initiated and not the public, but by the state (government) and the political structure of the tours (pro-government parties), to induce mass consciousness play a positive evaluation of the regime. Such legitimacy is based on the right of citizens to fulfill their responsibility to maintain a certain order and relations with the state. It is directly dependent on the ability of the authorities, elite structures to build and maintain people’s beliefs in justice and optimality established political institutions and their on line behavior.
For the formation of such a great importance to acquire the legitimacy of institutional and communication resources of the state. It is true that similar forms of legitimacy-nye often unnecessary juridization turn, allows one to eventually consider any institutional and legislative support board the legal right to apply for government coercion. Thus legitimacy is essentially identified with the legal-Stew, the legality, validity of the government and tightness of its existence in society.